Tag Archives: mental health

Mental Health and Substance Abuse

The Fatal Drug Overdose Quarterly Report (4th Quarter Report) has been released by Virginia Department of Health’s Office of the Chief Medical Examiner.  Fatal drug overdose has become the leading cause of death in Virginia with higher rates of drug overdose in certain regions of the state. Starting on page 8 this Quarterly Report details the drugs used: Cocaine, fentanyl, heroin, non-fentanyl opioids, and benzodiazepines (see Drugabuse.gov).

 

Some of these drugs are commonly known and have received a lot of prevention-attention in social policies, laws, and community practices. However, there are drugs, even if they have a “street name,” that are beginning to receive more attention—prescription drugs. It has been commonly believed that only illegal drugs should be criticized and used in “just say no (to drugs)” teachings and policies. Prescription drugs have traditionally been considered less harmful because they (for many people) are legally accessible. Thankfully, National Institute on Drug Abuse emphasizes prescription drug use and prescription drug abuse. This illustrates how prescription drug misuse, overuse, and addiction are receiving more attention from drug use coalitions, with law enforcement, within and across communities, and in research.

 

Opioid addiction has been declared a “public health emergency” by Virginia State Health Commissioner Marissa J. Levine. Levine is among the health professionals advocating being able to obtain naxolone without a prescription. Both illegal drugs and prescription drugs have become discussed for overuse, addiction, and overdose. Increasingly, organizations, communities, and legislators are petitioning doctors and pharmacies to reduce “shopping” and prevent people being prescribed medications rather than other less-intrusive methods to reduce mental and physical pains.

 

The Quarterly Report published by Virginia Department of Health’s Office of the Chief Medical Examiner provides data connected with circumstances including the school-to-prison-pipeline which Virginia Delegate Mike Mullin is pushing to change; employment, family, and legal issues; and mental health and physical health. Substance addiction and substance abuse are considered contributing to and resulting from diagnosable mental health condition. There are people who use substances to self-heal, self-medicate, and downplay a mental health condition (such as schizophrenia). This is an example of people who have both a mental health condition and substance abuse (see also).

 

Mental health and substance abuse are daily struggles for many people and it influences every aspect of people’s lives. This is not a light switch that can be turned on/off nor is this just about being “strong” and self-confident. There is a common misconception that mental health and substance addiction are exaggerated and only influence “those types of people”. This misconception is one of the reasons mental health conditions and substance use are often stigmatized and people are shamed. It is important to clarify such stigmatization and shaming do not cure or heal. People are also not deterred. Instead, people are more likely to engage in a “downward spiral” of secrecy that can be quite dangerous and detrimental.

 

This is why Mental Health America of Virginia and Harm Reduction Coalition (HRC) encourage open discussion and resources pertaining to mental health and substance use. Substance use programs and mental health programs need funding to increase availability for large populations across regions and across demographics. With increased voices in Virginia and across the country, we will develop more preventive measures to address mental health conditions and substance abuse rather than assuming individuals, families, and communities can figure this out by themselves. It is better to find more proactive measures than to mostly rely on reactive measures.  

 

By Kimya N. Dennis


By Kimya N. Dennis guest blog post discussing mental illness on Mental Health America of VirginiaKimya N. Dennis is a sociologist and criminologist originally from Richmond, VA. She lives in Winston-Salem, NC and does interdisciplinary work on mental health, suicide and suicidal self-harm, and reproductive choices. Dr. Dennis’s work reaches diverse audiences and particularly underserved populations. She is on the board of directors for The Mental Health Association in Forsyth County, North Carolina chapter of American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, and LEAD Girls of NC. Dr. Dennis is faculty and the creator and Coordinator of the Criminal Studies program in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Studies at Salem College in Winston-Salem, NC. She can be contacted: www.kimyandennis.com ; kimya@kimyandennis.com

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How will Virginia Address Mental Illness in Jails and Prisons?

The following is a guest post. Opinions expressed in this post are the author’s own.

Virginia’s recent legislative session produced several bills and budget amendments to improve mental health services. However, Virginia Governor Terry McAuliffe challenged state legislators to also include jail mental health assessments and investigation of certain jail deaths in Virginia’s budget. The legislature’s actions and Governor McAuliffe’s concerns highlight the tremendous impact funding concerns have on mental health services for the general population and for jail-prison populations. Previous budget cuts and funding concerns have increased already existing program constraints at local, state, and national levels.

Over the years organizations have conducted research to further understand mental illness and incarceration. In 2014, The Treatment Advocacy Center did a survey for every state, Virginia is on page 93, to examine how common it is for people with mental illness to be incarcerated (also known as “mental illness-to-incarceration-pipeline”). As with budget cuts and funding concerns, the incarceration of people with mental illness is prevalent locally, statewide, and nationwide. There is substantial impact on people of lower socioeconomic status and blacks and non-white Hispanics.  

To further capture the pattern of mental illness-to-incarceration, the 2016 Mental Illness in Jails Report found 6,554 jail inmates (almost 49% pre-trial; 51% post-conviction) are known to have or are suspected to have a mental illness. Of approximately 39,888 inmates in the general inmate population in 2016, there are approximately 16% with mental illness and 8% with serious mental illness (schizophrenia/delusional, PTSD, bipolar/major depressive).

Existing programs that provide mental health services to incarcerated populations include Virginia Department of Corrections Mental Health Services; and provide training to law enforcement representatives to further encourage crisis de-escalation include the Virginia Crisis Intervention Team Coalition. The mental health Crisis Intervention Team concept started in Memphis, Tennessee and has spread nationally and internationally. We need more collaborations with mental health organizations, law enforcement, and communities. Increased collaborations potentially increase access to mental health services, reduce forms of violence and crime, and decrease incarceration of people with mental illness.

Challenging the “mental illness-to-jail/prison-pipeline” includes underserved populations in Virginia: Individuals, families, and communities in which mental health is silenced and shamed. This includes, but is not limited to, gender; race, ethnicity, and culture; LGBTQ; and cultural and societal barriers. There are Virginians with less access to mental health services because of geography, cost, or cultural beliefs. Some people’s identity is shamed by other people (e.g., LGBTQ) and they are unable to talk to family, friends, and community members about their identity, let alone mental health issues. There can also be difficulty finding local mental health services that match people’s school and work schedules, can be reached through public transportation, and are affordable since most people lack private insurance or employment insurance. This can increase the prevalence of mental struggles, violence, and being placed in the criminal justice system.

Therefore, we need to examine factors that contribute to access to and underuse of mental health services: Underserved populations; correlation between mental illness, violence, and crime; and the mental illness-to-incarceration-pipeline. To capture this we must continue to challenge the dehumanization of people in jails and prisons. We must also continue to highlight how such challenges need funding. Yes, there are Virginia families and Virginia professionals passionate about this issue. Yes, there are Virginia families and Virginia professionals that will keep working despite funding concerns. However, we should not be met with minimal resources. We need resources to provide resources.

By Kimya N. Dennis


By Kimya N. Dennis guest blog post discussing mental illness on Mental Health America of VirginiaKimya N. Dennis is a sociologist and criminologist originally from Richmond, VA. She lives in Winston-Salem, NC and does interdisciplinary work on mental health, suicide and suicidal self-harm, and reproductive choices. Dr. Dennis’s work reaches diverse audiences and particularly underserved populations. She is on the board of directors for The Mental Health Association in Forsyth County, North Carolina chapter of American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, and LEAD Girls of NC. Dr. Dennis is faculty and the creator and Coordinator of the Criminal Studies program in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Studies at Salem College in Winston-Salem, NC. She can be contacted: www.kimyandennis.com ; kimya@kimyandennis.com

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